Indian Journal of Biotechnology

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Published by: NISCAIR (CSIR)

Subjects: Biology

Indian Journal of Biotechnology, started as a quarterly journal in 2002, publishes full papers, short communications and reviews in agricultural, animal, environmental, industrial, medical, and microbial biotechnology, bioinformatics, and socio-legal and ethical aspects in biotechnology. The latest developments in biotech-industry are covered under Notes and News.

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ISSN No. :    0972-5849
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Molecular genetic architecture of Hallikar cattle (Bos indicus) revealed through microsatellite markers
Title: Molecular genetic architecture of Hallikar cattle (Bos indicus) revealed through microsatellite markers

Authors: Hepsibha, P; Gogoi, A; Karthickeyan, S M K

Abstract: Hallikar breed of cattle, popularly known as the ‘champion of draft breeds’, is a typical Mysore type cattle. Molecular characterization of Hallikar cattle through automated genotyping of 22 microsatellite loci revealed a total of 166 alleles with the number of alleles ranging from 3 (ILSTS033) to 16 (TGLA53) with a mean of 7.55±0.65, and the mean effective number of alleles was 3.67±0.31. The sizes of the alleles ranged from 92 (CSRM60) to 302 bp (ILSTS006). The overall mean polymorphic information content value was 0.6367±0.03. The observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) values averaged 0.6068±0.05 and 0.6863±0.03, respectively, measuring high genetic variation in the population. The overall mean deficit of heterozygotes (FIS) (0.1314±0.05) exhibited existence of a breed structure in Hallikar.

Page(s): 411-413

Effect of heparin-binding oviduct specific proteins on in vitro embryo development in cattle
Title: Effect of heparin-binding oviduct specific proteins on in vitro embryo development in cattle

Authors: Sharma, Aditya K; Mohapatra, Sushil K; Mohanty, A K; Das, Subrata K

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous heparin-binding oviduct specific proteins (HBP) on in vitro embryo development in cattle. Total protein (TP) was precipitated from cow oviduct tissue lysate by ammonium sulfate and fractionated by heparin agarose affinity column. SDS-PAGE profile of TP showed diverse molecular size bands. HBP showed bands between ~66 to ~97 kDa and unbound protein fraction (HUBP) exhibited ~45 to ~66 kDa bands. Protein fractions (TP, HBP & HUBP) were used in 3 different concentrations (1, 10 & 30 µg/mL) on in vitro embryo development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries, washed 4-5 times and cultured in maturation media at 38.5°C with maximum humidity in 5% CO2 in air. After 24 h, oocytes were co-incubated with capacitated sperms in Fert-BO for 14-18 h and then transferred into embryo development media. Cleavage was checked after 40-42 h and transferred into replacement media. The results indicate that at 10 µg/mL of TP fraction used as media supplement increased the cleavage rate (71.87%±3.78, P<0.05) and blastocyst formation (29.37%±3.13, P<0.01) as compared to HBP and HUBP fraction. From this study, it can be concluded that both TP and HBP may play a major role during the process of fertilization and early embryonic development in vitro.

Page(s): 408-410

Revisiting the role of the electron transport chain in molybdate reduction by Enterobacter cloacae strain 48
Title: Revisiting the role of the electron transport chain in molybdate reduction by Enterobacter cloacae strain 48

Authors: Shukor, Mohd Yunus

Abstract: Molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue by microbes is a potential bioremediation tool for molybdenum pollution. A previous work using cyanide as a respiratory inhibitor has shown that the site of molybdenum reduction in Enterobacter cloacae strain 48 is at the electron transport pathway. In the present work, several respiratory inhibitors together with cyanide were used to reinvestigate the site of molybdenum reduction in E. cloacae strain 48. All the respiratory inhibitors tested showed no inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing capability of the bacterium. It was also discovered that cyanide caused a large increase in the pH of the enzymatic reaction mixture and, therefore, the inhibition previously seen was likely due to unfavourable pH for the enzyme activity. Based on these results, the site of molybdenum reduction in this bacterium is suggested not to be the component of electron transport pathway.

Page(s): 404-407

Near real-time inhibitive assay for heavy metals using achromopeptidase
Title: Near real-time inhibitive assay for heavy metals using achromopeptidase

Authors: Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Anuar, Norhaizuran; Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi; Masdor, Noor Azlina

Abstract: Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Therefore, a simple and raid method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. A near-real-time heavy metal assay that could be completed in less than 1 h has been developed using achromopeptidase, a protease. This enzyme was assayed using the casein Coomassie-dye-binding assay. In the absence of inhibitors, casein will be hydrolyzed and the solution will remain light brown. In the presence of heavy metals, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution becomes blue. The LOD (limits of detection) for zinc, mercury, cadmium, copper, chromium and lead were 0.124±0.03, 0.12±0.02, 0.213±0.078, 0.442±0.119, 0.478±0.127 and 2.24±0.842 mg/L, respectively. Comparison with other established assays, such as, immobilized urease, MicrotoxTM, Daphnia magna, rainbow trout, papain, bromelain and trypsin showed similar sensitivity towards toxic heavy metals. The results of the present study show that this assay is suitable as a rapid preliminary screening method for detection of heavy metals in the environment.

Page(s): 398-403

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