Journal of Integrated Science and Technology

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Published by: Integrated Science Publications

Subjects: InterDisciplinary Science and Technology

The Journal of Integrated Science and Technology (JIST) is official journal of published by Indian Science Publications division. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles from research in Science & Technology. The articles published cover different areas of Sciences and Technology viz., Chemical Sciences, Physics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Biochemistry & Bioinformatics, Botany & Environmental Sciences, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Entomology & Toxicological Sciences, Fisheries, Food Science & Nutrition, Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, Marine Biology, Material Sciences, BioEngineering, BioEthics, BioMedical Engineering and many more branches in the field of Science and Technology. Journal of Contemporary Science and Technology covers Research Articles, Reviews, Science & Technology Education, Popular Articles and Conference proceedings. Articles with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary nature are promoted to foster a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of research. Industrial designs and and educational articles are published in special section.


Integrated Science Publications, Near Primary School, Jaunti, Delhi - 110081

An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in the Perforated Rectangular Fin

The main objective of this study is to understand the effect of number of perforations on convective heat transfer experimentally investigated. Perforations in the fins are one way that used to improve its effectiveness. In this study, the steady state heat transfer from the solid fin and perforated fin arrays are measured. The  temperature  drop  along  the  perforated  fin  length  is  consistently  higher  than that  for  the  equivalent  non – perforated  fin. The inlet temperature of the cylinder core was in the rage of 353oC-953oC for voltage range 100 V to 220 V. The heat transfer depends on the porosity of the fin. Heat dissipation rate is increased in the range of 20% to 70% with increase in the number of perforations (24 to 60) up to certain level. If further increase in perforation numbers this leads to reduction of the heat dissipation from the fin.

Dielectric Properties and equivalent circuit Analysis of molybdenum doped lead lithium borate glasses

The dielectric properties and equivalent circuit analysis of glasses with composition xPbO·(30-x)Li2O·70B2O(x = 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12  and 15 mol% with code PLBM1-7 respectively) containing 2 mol% of MoO3 prepared by melt-quench technique are discussed. The dielectric properties have been studied using impedance spectroscopy. The frequency dependent conductivity investigations for prepared compositions have been carried out using impedance spectroscopy over a frequency range of 1 KHz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range of 300K-523K. The complex impedance data have been analyzed by using both the conductivity and the electric modulus formalisms. Standard dielectric behavior is observed in prepared samples. The ac conductivity obeys Jonscher’s power law. The study of the equivalent circuit analysis up to a temperature of 473K shows a significant change in the equivalent circuit with change in temperature and composition.

Phytoremediation of heavy metals and its mechanism: A brief review

In this study a review has been carried out for the uptake of toxic pollutants by various plants from water and soil. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the cleaning of soil and water and cheap in comparison to other technologies. The mechanism of the uptake of toxic pollutants is discussed.

Investigation on Effect of 20% Shrinkage and 20% Shrinkage-Offset Canard Configurations on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Onera M6 wing using Computational Fluid Dynamics

The main objective of the analysis is to study the detailed aerodynamics & the characteristics of the lift & drag of the aircraft with the canard wing & the co-efficient of pressure & flow separation patterns over the wings at different spans and angles of attacks. Here the Onera-M6 wing is modelled for the transonic flow conditions in 3D with the adiabatic flow conditions. In the first case only the Onera-M6 wing is analyzed to know the performance. In the second case the canard is considered along with the Onera-M6 main wing and the modelling is done with the same set of conditions as 3D- transonic flows. In the present study two canard positions are considered, one under the same axis of the main wing (20% shrinkage), and another above the axis line of the main wing (20% shrinkage-offset). In the first design i.e., canard of 20% shrinkage with same axis, the design is performing well than clean wing & 20% shrinkage-offset canard at the lower angle of attacks. In the second design i.e., canard with 20% shrinkage-offset with the axis of the main wing is analyzed at different angles of attacks, the design is performing better than clean wing & 20% shrinkage with the same axis at higher angles of attacks.

Synthesis and characterization of Pyrazoline derivatives
In the present study the synthesis of pyrazoline derivatives were carried out by cyclization of the chalchone with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of the formic acid. The synthesized pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized on the basis of prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (1H NMR).

Assessment of Ecological Health of Tilyar Lake, India
Tilyar Lake in Haryana is selected for the purpose of assessing its ecological health. A multi-index system has been used to assess the ecological health which includes Carlson’s Trophic State Index (CTSI), Simpson’s Diversity Index (SDI) and Water Quality Index (WQI). The results indicated that the lake health is average but is approaching to bad condition as indicated by EHI of 2.93. Suitable conservative measures should be adopted to arrest its further degradation. Certain conservative measures are also suggested.

Optical absorption and fluorescence spectral analysis of Ho3+ ions doped zinc bismuth borate glasses
Zinc Bismuth Borate glasses doped with Holmium was prepared by normal melt quenching technique. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of these glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The observed spectra have been analysed on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory. From this theory various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability, branching ratio, radiative life time and stimulated emission cross-section for the prominent emission levels 5F35I8, 5F45I8, 5S25I8 and 5F55I8 have been evaluated.

Risk assessment and analysis of water quality in Ramgarh Lake, India

The present study intended to comprehensive analysis of water quality and human health risk assessment in water of Ramgarh Lake of Uttar Pradesh (U.P), India during the post monsoon season in year 2014. The analysis has been performed using pollution indices such as comprehensive pollution index (CPI), Carlson’s trophic state index (C-TSI), eutrophication index (EI), organic pollution index (OPI) and hazard index (HI) based on the physiochemical parameters (DO, BOD, COD etc.) for ten different sites to ascertain the quality of water for public consumption and other life supporting activities. The results indicate that the Ramgarh Lake comes under the category of severely polluted (CPI>2.0), hypereutrophic (C-TSI>70), eutrophication (EI>1) and heavily organic pollutant load (OPI>4). Therefore, the water of Lake is not suitable for irrigation and life supporting for flora and fauna. From the present study, it has been analyzed that the CPI, OPI, EI, CTSI and HI are the best indices for assessment of human health risk and water quality in the water bodies.

Molecular modeling of Bi(V)-MCs derived from streptomycin derivatives: synthesis and spectroscopic studies
Streptomycin (SM) derivatives (L1 and L2) were used for complexation with Bi(V). Originated coordination patterns in MCs-1 and MCs-2 along within the molecular models were characterized by various physiochemical, spectroscopic measurements and mathematical calculations i.e. IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, and molecular modeling. Electronic absorption spectra of SM derivatives (L1 and L2) and MCs proved complexation during MCs formation. Observed transitions were showed important shifting in relative intensities. The infra red behavior of MCs were indicative of band transfer. Binding abilities of donor atom(s) of ligands were highly dependable on different constraints of ligands and Bi(V) binding capabilities. These evidences were detected and discussed. Molecular modeling of MCs produced a clear picture regarding three dimension structure of SM derivatives (L1 and L2) and MCs regarding concerned bond lengths and angles.

Thermal pressure and thermal expansivity of solids at high temperatures
Thermal pressure and thermal expansivity for sodium chloride and potassium chloride solids has been calculated at high temperatures using various Equation of State. The results from these calculations have been compared with the experimental data and the results are found to present close agreement with the experimental data. A close agreement between present study and the experiment data reveals the validity of the present work. The values of thermal pressure and thermal expansivity at high temperatures are useful to understand the thermo-elastic behavior of solids.

Influence of SiO2 on the structural and dielectric properties of ZnO∙Bi2O3∙SiO2 glasses

Zinc bismuth silicate glasses having composition 20ZnO∙(80-x)Bi2O3∙xSiO2 (with x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%) were prepared by the conventional melt-quench technique. The compositional dependence of density (D), molar volume (VM) and glass transition temperature (Tg) were analyzed and correlated with the structural changes occurring in the glasses. The FTIR spectra were recorded in the range 400-4400cm-1 in order to obtain information about the competitive role of Bi2O3 and SiO2 in the formation of glass network. From the analysis of these spectra it is found that in these glasses, Bi2O3 acts as both network former with [BiO3] pyramidal units and as modifier with [BiO6]octahedral units. The formation of Zn2+ in tetrahedral co-ordination was not observed. Conduction and relaxation mechanism in these glasses were studied using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 10Hz to 7MHz and in the temperature range from 473 to 703 K. The ac and dc conductivities, activation energy for dc conduction (Edc) and relaxation (Eτ) were extracted from the impedance spectra. The compositional variation in conductivity has been attributed to the presence of mixed glass former effect in these glasses. The perfect overlapping of normalized plots of electrical modulus on a single ‘master curve’ for all temperatures reveals that the conductivity relaxation occurring at different frequencies exhibit temperature independent dynamical processes. Similar values of Edc and Eτ for each glass composition indicate that the charge carrier ions have to overcome the same energy barrier during conduction as well as relaxation processes. 

Effect of temperature on structural and electrical properties of Mn0.6Zn0.2La0.2Fe2O4 Nanoferrite
Lanthanum substituted Mn-Zn nano-ferrite with formula Mn0.6Zn0.2La0.2Fe2O4 has been synthesized by Sol-Gel auto-combustion technique. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. Particle size was found to increase, 11.1-18.5 nm, with increase in temperature. TEM has been used to justify the shape and particle size with XRD. The dc resistivity of nanoferrite was studied as a function of temperature which indicates the semiconducting nature of nanoferrites. Further, high value of dc resistivity (~107 Ω-cm) was observed. Various theories and models have been used to authenticate the structure and electrical results

Development of Energy Efficient Carbon Fiber based Convective Heater

A heating element has been developed that uses processed fibrous carbon materials to serve as a conducting base, and a suitable binder material to increase its overall strength and performance characteristics. This has been further fabricated in the form of a wall heater. The device has been designed to work on natural convection currents without any forced air blast using fans and motors. The flexibility of the material enables its use in different shapes as room heaters, decorative wall heaters, as a heating element in electric iron, hot plates, heating pads etc. Various advantageous characteristics of the carbon fiber based heating element (over the conventional nichrome wire and other carbon based heating element) that contributes in the efficient working of the heater have been discussed, the most important being its low power consumption. The heater consumes less than 200 watt of power as compared to 1-2 kW ingested by the commercial heaters.

Status of biofuel production from microalgae in India

The economy of any country runs on energy. Due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment restrict the use of fossil fuels. Biodiesel is required for environmental and economic sustainability of any country. Biodiesel produced from Ist generation, second generation, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel from microalgae appears to be a viable alternative to replace petroleum based fuel due to various advantages. This present paper investigate the prospectus of microalgal biodiesel in India.

Ferrite materials: A chronological review
Ferrite is very important technological material having both electrical and magnetic properties. This paper represent some of the important developments in the study of ferrite. A review of ferrite study from 1909 to till date is presented here regarding science and technology of ferrite. The paper highlights the work of some great scientists like S.Hilpert, J.L. Snoek, Neel, Anderson, Goldman, Takashi Takei etc. The role of international conference on ferrites (ICF) is also given in this paper. Various illustrations given in this paper explains the history and applications of the ferrites. It gives an over view of ferrite study from bulk to nano scale preparations of ferrites. It is the need of the present day to prepare samples of ferrite with one composition using many available methods of preparation and compare the results of such studies. This will give useful data for the user and designer interested in ferrites for various application.

Effect of oxidant concentration on the co-polymerization of m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and aniline co-polymer: synthesis and characterization

The effect of the concentrations of the oxidizing agent (sodium persulphate) on the properties of poly (m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid -co- aniline) p(m-ABSA-co-Ani) co-polymer has been investigated. The prepared samples were confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and further, characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and tested for temperature dependent stability by thermogravimetric analyses. The room-temperature conductivity measurements have been performed on all the p(m-ABSA-co Ani) co-polymers samples and found a maximum value of conductivity of ~ 6.5 × 10-2 S/cm at 168 mM concentration of oxidizing agent. The EPR studies have been shown that the variation of line width of EPR signals withoxidizing agent concentration and found a close relation with electrical conductivity. The prepared co-polymer samples are thermally stable up to 600 oC detected by TGA analysis. The synthesized co-polymer materials show around 75% solubility in chloroform, ~65 % in Dimethyl sulfoxide, ~­58 % in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and weakly soluble in aqueous medium.

Impact of biodiesel on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable. Looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The performance of diesel engine under the engine loading conditions showed that maximum output power at full load condition is nearly same for B10 and diesel fuel. For combustion characteristics, slightly shorter ignition delay and lower peak heat release rates were observed for biodiesel while there is slight reduction in SO2 and HC emission with increase in NOX emission when biodiesel and its blends are used. The present paper covers combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The performance of diesel engines using biodiesel and its blends with petro-diesel in terms of brake power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust emissions is reviewed. The engine problems and their possible remedial measure are also suggested in this paper.

Ecological Health Assessment of Chambal River using Water Quality Parameters

The river is a main source to fulfill the basic needs of drinking water & irrigation. Due to multifarious anthropogenic activities has created havoc to the river health. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the river health to make it suitable for various purposes. In this study, various water quality indices (WQI) used for assessing river health are discussed. The literature reveals that water quality parameters are the most significant tool to assess the river health. In this paper an attempt has been made to assess the river health by using different methods viz. EQI, RPI & OPI. It is found that the RPI method is most effective, less time consuming and cost effective. By using different methods, it is found that the river health of Chambal River comes in average category, gives an indication that river is slightly/moderately polluted

Effect of sewage irrigation on yield of Pea and Pigeon Pea
Irrigation is the important factors which determine the productivity of any crop. In this study, the source of irrigation is sewage effluent and observations were recorded on important food crops like pea & pigeon pea. Results showed at higher concentration of effluent there were reduction in growth and yield as compared to diluted conc. (50%) which showed normal growth or without affecting yield, which might be due to lots of organic matter and essential nutrient in sewage effluents.

Synthesis, electrical and thermal properties of Bi4V2-xZrxO11 (x=0.0 and 0.06) ceramics
Polycrystalline ceramic samples of pure and Zr+4 doped Bi4V2-xZrxO11 (x=0.0 and 0.06) have been synthesized by standard solid state reaction method using high purity oxides. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss and hence ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature have been measured. The dielectric studies indicate that the material is highly lossy and hence its ac conductivity increases with the increase of temperature. The dc conductivity of material has been measured as a function of temperature from room temperature to 653 K and its activation energy was calculated using the relation σ = σo exp (-Ea/kT). The Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) has been used to investigate the effect of substitution on the phase transition of the compounds.

Journal information submitted by: Dr. Bhupender Singh

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