Journal of Integrated Science and Technology

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Published by: Integrated Science Publications

Subjects: InterDisciplinary Science and Technology

The Journal of Integrated Science and Technology (JIST) is official journal of IndianScience.in published by Indian Science Publications division. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles from research in Science & Technology. The articles published cover different areas of Sciences and Technology viz., Chemical Sciences, Physics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Biochemistry & Bioinformatics, Botany & Environmental Sciences, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Entomology & Toxicological Sciences, Fisheries, Food Science & Nutrition, Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, Marine Biology, Material Sciences, BioEngineering, BioEthics, BioMedical Engineering and many more branches in the field of Science and Technology. Journal of Contemporary Science and Technology covers Research Articles, Reviews, Science & Technology Education, Popular Articles and Conference proceedings. Articles with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary nature are promoted to foster a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of research. Industrial designs and and educational articles are published in special section.

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Linear solvation energy relationship of 3-(1′H-indol-3′-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones using Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters

Steady-state absorption and fluorescence techniques have been used to study the photophysical properties of the fluorescent 3-(1′H-Indol-3′-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (IC) derivatives  via Kamlet-Taft and Catalán treatments. In a refined work of the non-specific interactions of these derivatives in various solvents, a complete set of Kamlet-Taft and Catalán scales has been employed, which enables to separate the polarizability, hydrogen-bond donor and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities of these derivatives. The Kamlet-Taft and Catalán treatments of these derivatives in the ground state suggest that the IC derivatives can well behave both as hydrogen bond acceptors and donors due to the simultaneous presence of carbonyl and NH groups, whereas, in excited state only the hydrogen bond accepting ability counts.



Optimization of concentration of MWCNT in terms of performance of prepared novel cathode material for energy storage

The successful synthesis of a novel cathode material Li2MnFeSiO4 (LMFS) was done using thestandardSol-Gel technique. To improve the electrical conductivity of cathode material different concentration (wt/wt) of MWCNT are incorporated into LMFS generating composite Li2MnFeSiO4/MWCNT via solution method. In order to achieve better electron passage to particle–particle boundaries, MWCNT is considered as one of the ideals and appropriate conductive additive. The Li2MnFeSiO4 nanoparticles are dispersed homogeneously in CNT's network and assembled as micro-sized porous spherical particles. Such special composite structure constructs an efficient Li+ and electron channel, which significantly enhance the Li-ion diffusion coefficient and reduced the charge transfer resistance, hence may lead to high electrical conductivity. Carbon nano tube not only deposited on the surface, but also provide theinterconnected network. This continuous conductive network enhances the electronic conductivity of the insertion/de-insertion cycles. Complex impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to estimate the electrical conductivity of prepared samples. The Li2MnFeSiO4/MWCNT with 12 wt% of CNT delivers highest electrical conductivity (i.e. ~10-3 Scm-1) which is at par with desire for the energy storage applications.



Production of glucose syrup by the hydrolysis of starch made from rotten potato
Glucose syrup production from rotten potato was investigated. The starch extracted from rotten potato after steeping for 12hrs and purified by sedimentation method and had the yield of 82.17%. The glucose recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis using alpha amylase produced 42.20g reducing sugar from rotten potato starch followed by the glucose recovered by acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid solution produced 40.54g reducing sugar respectively. Starch from rotten potato exhibited good potential as a substrate for glucose syrup production.  Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of rotten potato starch to glucose were investigated and compared. Enzymatic hydrolysis produced higher yield of glucose as compared to acid hydrolysis

Laser induced optical bistability in MgPc dye
In the present work, optical bistability using a Fabry-Perot cavity containing MgPc dye dissolved in toluene of different concentrations have been experimentally investigated by using a single mode Q-switched nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at ~532nm. The nonlinear refractive index  n2 is numerically estimated from the bistabe loop and found to be in close approximations with the previously reported values. The nature of the bistable loop depicts the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process in the medium under study. Absorptive type bistability is found to be predominant over dispersive bistability.

Simultaneous treatment of phenol and cyanide containing synthetic/simulated wastewater using mixed culture immobilized on coconut shell activated carbon biomass in a packed bed bio-column reactor
The removal of phenol and cyanide from synthetic/simulated waste water using a packed bed bio-column reactor was investigated. Mixed culture of Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194 and Serretia odoriferra MTCC 5700 has been immobilized on the iron impregnated coconut shell activated carbon (Fe-CSAC)  bed in the packed bed bio-column reactor. The synthetic/simulated waste water sample comprising phenol and cyanide at initial concentration 500 and 50 mg/L, respectively, was used. Concentrations of phenol and cyanide have been found to be decreased, lower than permissible limits in the treated water. The significant influence of bed height (cm) and empty bed contact time (EBCT) was examined onto the simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide in the packed bed bio-column reactor. On the other hand, after 4-5 days of continuous treatment of phenol and cyanide the influence of process parameters was not noteworthy. Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) has been found to decline along with time and the pH of the solution in the packed bed bio-column reactor has decreased initially for 2 days but after that it became the same as the influent. Real industrial wastewater samples can be efficiently handled.

A study on laser induced damage threshold of SiO2 and TiO2 Thin Films

Laser induced damage threshold of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films prepared by e-beam evaporation technique on BK7 glass substrate at normal without  heating. TiO2 and SiO2 deposited by such method were annealed in air for an hour at temperature of 2500C. X- ray diffraction of these samples shows the amorphous behavior of the SiO2 and TiO2 films. Using spectrophotometer standardization for quarter wave optical thickness (QWOT) were calculated reflectivity of TiO2, at quarter wave optical thickness confirms its reflective behavior while that of SiO2 film confirms  anti-reflective behaviors. Simulation of above film design performed with OpenFilter software. Electric field intensity and reflectivity are characterized with this software. Simulation results show that standing wave electric field is higher in TiO2 as compare to SiO2 film and thus due to this higher electric field damage thresholds of TiO2will be lower than the SiO2 films.



Structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposite photoanodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) application

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and ZnO/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by direct blending procedure. The pure ZnO and ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposite films were coated on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by doctor blade method followed by annealing. The MWCNTs were functionalized by mixed acid treatment before incorporation into ZnO matrix and the presence of the carboxylic group was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR). Electrical properties of these films were investigated by means of Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics. Structural, Morphological and optical properties of the nanocomposite films were examined by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy respectively. The incorporation of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) in ZnO matrix provides better separation of ZnO particles and hence prevents aggregation. FESEM analysis confirms the increase in porosity of the ZnO films after incorporation of MWCNTs which enhances the absorption of light in photoanode of solar cells. It makes these films a better candidate for use as working electrode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs).



Corrosion inhibition of Aluminum by Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in 0.5N HCl
The inhibitive property of the Trigonella foenum graecum seeds (TfgS) on the acid corrosion of aluminum has been investigated. The experimentation was carried out by the weight loss method. The results reveal that TfgS inhibit corrosion of aluminum very efficiently. The inhibition efficiency (IE %) was found highest 88% for concentration of inhibitor 1.056g/L at immersion time of 48 hours. The adsorptive behavior of the inhibitor was further studied by the FTIR spectroscopy and Optical micrography techniques. It is inferred that the TfgS may be a better substitute of the chemical inhibitors used for acid corrosion of aluminum.

Synthesis and characterization of Aluminium and Indium co-doped Zinc Oxide thin films prepared by Pulsed Laser deposition
Aluminium-Indium co-doped ZnO (AIZO) thin films were prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on glass substrates. The structural, optical and surface morphology properties of the AIZO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The transmittance was found to be in the range of 81% in the visible region. XRD reveals that these films are oriented along c-axis and have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The reflection peak from the (002) plane is observed at 32.20 with a slight shift towards lower 2θ value as compared to undoped ZnO, suggesting enhanced out of plane lattice parameter as compared to undoped ZnO film. The surface morphology of the AIZO thin films were affected due to the presence of Aluminium and Indium. The particle size and roughness of the ZnO and aluminium-indium co doped ZnO thin film were estimated to be 33 nm, 3.8 nm and for AIZO thin films are 101 nm and 11 nm respectively.

Tellurium based thermoelectric materials: New directions and prospects
Telluride alloys are widely used in thermoelectric devices which generate electricity from waste heat or act as Peltier coolers. Limited by toxicity these are best materials for room temperature range. It has been observed that figure of merit (ZT) of these rises with temperature but decreases attaining a peak. Thanks to modern synthesis and characterization techniques, an era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. This work explores the strategies used to improve the thermopower for the two most important tellurium based compounds namely Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and Antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). With the variation in the composition of these compounds changes/ enhancement in the thermoelectric properties and possibility of compositions which may be optimized for development of applications above room temperature have been explored. It is concluded that although current experimental works reveals a few promising thermoelectric properties of these materials, intensive investigation should be initiated to achieve/ explore more improvable properties.

Study of Non Linear optical properties of Fe doped CdSe nanoparticles

Fe doped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized by Co-Precipitation method.  Optical, Structural, Morphological studies were carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Inecrease in band gap, fluorescence quenching and red shift of fluorescence peak position was observed with increasing dopant (Fe) concentration in CdSe. Absorption spectra of undoped CdSe, Fe doped CdSe QDs exhibits a blue shift as compared to the bulk CdSe which indicates clearly the quantum confinement effect. The nonlinear optical parameters viz. nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of quantum dots have been estimated using second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. The study predicts that CdSe:Fe quantum dots exhibits strong non linearity as compared to core CdSe nanoparticles.



Study of Glass and Bakelite properties as electrodes in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs)
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter detector (ICAL) for the study of atmospheric neutrinos. ICAL detector will be a stack of 151 layers of magnetized iron plates interleaved with glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements with a total mass of 50 kton. Resistive Plate Chambers are gaseous detectors made up of two parallel electrodes of high bulk resistivity like float glass and bakelite. These detectors are extensively used in several high energy physics experiments since 1980s because of high count rate, excellent time as well as spatial resolutions, simple to fabricate and operate. Due to detector aging issue, it is necessary to characterize electrode material so as to select appropriate electrode material before fabricating the detector. In the present studies, we measured bulk resistivity and surface current of glass as well as bakelite. Bulk resistivity of bakelite is ~ 100 times less than that of glass and surface current of bakelite is higher than that of glass. Also glass does not need any kind of surface treatment to achieve better surface uniformity. Therefore, glass electrodes are preferred over bakelite electrodes in most of the cases. Locally manufactured Asahi glass plate of ~2 mm thickness and bakelite plates  were tested during the studies as reported in this paper before the various stages of detector fabrication.

Role of low salt concentration on electrical conductivity in blend polymeric films
A new blend polymer electrolyte based on polyethyelene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) doped with Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) has been prepared by solution casting technique using Dimethyalformamide (DMF) as solvent. The prepared samples were characterized by FTIR, FESEM and ac impedance spectroscopic measurements. The complex formation between blend polymer (0.5g PEO: 0.5g PAN) and LiPF6 has been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From AC impedance spectroscopic analysis there is enhancement of two order on addition of salt than pure PEO-PAN. The effect of low salt concentration on the conductivity and surface morphology of the blend polymer electrolyte has been discussed.

Abstracts - Role of Analytical Sciences in Sustainable Development

Abstracts of Role of Analytical Sciences in Sustainable Development

Organized by: Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India

in collaboration withIndian society of Analytical Scientists- Delhi Chapter (ISAS-DC) and Petrotech Society

Dates: 4-5 March 2016.



A comparative study of inhibitive effects of some Schiff’s Bases on Mild Steel in Acid media
Mass Loss, Thermometric & Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) techniques have been employed to study the corrosion inhibitory effects of some newly synthesized Schiff’s Bases viz. N-(furfurilidine)-4-methoxy aniline (SB1), N-( furfurilidine)-4-methylaniline (SB2), N-(Salicylidine)-4-Methoxyaniline(SB3) , N-(Cinnamalidine)-4-methoxy aniline(SB4) and N-( Cinnamalidine)-2-methylaniline (SB5) for mild steel in HCl & H2SO4 solutions. Results of inhibition efficiencies from all the three techniques show that Schiff’s Bases are good inhibitors in both the solutions. Inhibition efficiencies increase with the increase in the concentrations of acids as well as those of inhibitors. Maximum efficiency for H2SO4 was found 97.01 % whereas for HCl it was found 97.93 % . It was also found that all the three techniques show good agreement with each other.

Investigation of extracts of Plant Cordia Dichotoma as potential corrosion inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acid media
The alcoholic extracts of fruit, leaves and stem of plant Cordia Dichotoma were studied for their corrosion inhibition efficiency for mild steel in acid media. The studies showed that the fruit extract of this plant is more potent corrosion inhibitor than the leaves and stem extratcs of Cordia dichotoma.The corrosion inhibition of mild steel  using extracts of cordia dichotoma in different acid media was investigated by mass loss method. The experiments were carried out at 299 ± 0.2 K in presence of different concentrations of  fruit, leaves and stem extracts of Cordia dichotoma. The results reveal that the alcoholic extracts of Cordia dichotoma are better corrosion inhibitor than that of toxic chemicals.

Inhibitive action of Leptadenia pyrotechnica extract on the corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 solution
Inhibitive action on corrosion of mild steel in acidic media has been studied using Mass Loss Technique and Thermometric Method. Corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solution can be effectively inhibited by addition of extract of Leptadenia pyrotechnica as green corrosion inhibitor. The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency was found upto 87.04% in 1.0N H2SO4 with 0.8% extract. It is concluded that Leptadenia pyrotechnica is an effective corrosion inhibitor and can safely be used as green corrosion inhibitor without any toxic effect.

Adsorption of toxic metal ions from laboratory effluents by agricultural waste
The chemistry laboratory effluents usually contains highly toxic organic and inorganic pollutants including metal ions .These hazardous chemical wastes pose serious health problems to living beings. The persistency of toxic metals in environment and their ill health effects are well known. Out of the possible methods to check toxic metal ion pollution, the bio-remediation is of great importance as conventional methods used to remove these toxic metal ions are quite expensive and have certain limitations in terms of efficiency and disposal of secondary waste produced in the process. Adsorption of these metal ions by agricultural waste materials has advantage because of the low cost and high efficiency. Moreover these are environment friendly and there is a possibility of metal ion recovery also. These cellulosic agricultural wastes contain various functional groups like carbonyl, alcohol, acetamido, sulfhydryl etc. which can form chelateswith metal ions and help sequestering of these toxic metals. In the present study rice husk and orange peel have been used for the removal of metal ions from laboratory effluents. Our studies have indicated that the adsorption of metal ions by these bio-sorbents is efficient for the bio-remediation of the laboratory wastewater. Some of these are highly efficient and remove nearly 85% of toxic metal ions. Kinetics of adsorption of metal ions on these materials is also studied. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models have been studied for mono component adsorption of metal ion by these bio-sorbents. Free energy change for sorption is also calculated. Various physical parameters of laboratory effluent water were compared before and after the adsorption.

Environmentally benign Iodometric method for estimation of copper
Copper is one of the most important metals as it is used in alloys as well as electric and electronic industry.  The composition of alloy strongly affects its properties. Instrumental methods are preferred for quickly finding composition of alloys. However, the main limitations in these methods are high cost of instruments and need for skilled supervision for maintenance & operations. To overcome limitations of instrumental analysis, to reduce the sample size and to reduce waste, a novel eco-friendly micro-titration method based on counting of number of drops is reported. Students learn chemical quantitative analysis and practice iodometry in their lab courses for estimation of copper. The green method was used along with conventional iodometry for training of first year UG students. The data of estimated copper using the two methods were collected and analyzed. Statistical comparison of the results of these methods shows fairly good agreement and indicates no significant difference in precision and accuracy.  The novel method is more environmentally benign as it helps in energy savings, a drastic reduction of reagent consumption, and less waste generation.

Interaction of CdSe Quantum Dots with some aliphatic and aromatic diamines

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystal show that CdSe quantum dots have set the latest trends in the era of reduced dimensionality. The interactions of these CdSe quantum dots with organic molecules have led to new materials showing fascinating physical properties of potential technological importance. It is very to explore the interactions of quantum dots with various molecules for which they can be used as effective sensors with wide range of applications. In order to develop sensors for the detection of amines, several investigations have already been carried out. Earlier studies have already revealed that the direct interaction between the CdSe surface and amine functional groups passivates the surface and blocks the trapping of electrons at the defect sites. The latest research in the field of applications of quantum dots suffers huge drawbacks because of inadequate results available for the systematic study of structural and electronic properties of quantum dots as a sensor.This work provides an overview of efforts made to interactCdSe quantum dots with various aliphatic (Ethylene diamine, Hexamethylenediamine) and aromatic diamines (Orthophenylenediamine, MetaphenylenediamineandParaphenylenediamine). There are tremendous structural transformations in the structures of the molecular systems. Significant changes in the electronic properties were also marked after interactions between the diamines and CdSe quantum dots.



Journal information submitted by: Dr. Bhupender Singh

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