Journal of Integrated Science and Technology

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Published by: Integrated Science Publications

Subjects: InterDisciplinary Science and Technology

The Journal of Integrated Science and Technology (JIST) is official journal of IndianScience.in published by Indian Science Publications division. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles from research in Science & Technology. The articles published cover different areas of Sciences and Technology viz., Chemical Sciences, Physics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Biochemistry & Bioinformatics, Botany & Environmental Sciences, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Entomology & Toxicological Sciences, Fisheries, Food Science & Nutrition, Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, Marine Biology, Material Sciences, BioEngineering, BioEthics, BioMedical Engineering and many more branches in the field of Science and Technology. Journal of Contemporary Science and Technology covers Research Articles, Reviews, Science & Technology Education, Popular Articles and Conference proceedings. Articles with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary nature are promoted to foster a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of research. Industrial designs and and educational articles are published in special section.

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Tellurium based thermoelectric materials: New directions and prospects

Telluride alloys are widely used in thermoelectric devices used to generate electricity from waste heat or Peltier coolers. Limited by toxicity these are best materials for room temperature range. It has been observed that figure of merit (ZT) of these rises with temperature but decreases attaining a peak. Thanks to modern synthesis and characterization techniques, an era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. This work explores the strategies used to improve the thermopower for the two most important tellurium based compounds namely Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and Antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). With the variation in the composition of these compounds changes/ enhancement in the thermoelectric properties and Possibility of compositions which may be optimized for development of applications above room temperature have been explored. It is concluded that although current experimental works reveals a few promising thermoelectric properties of these materials, intensive investigation should be initiated to achieve/ explore more improvable properties.



Study of Non Linear optical properties of Fe doped CdSe nanoparticles

Fe doped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized by Co-Precipitation method.  Optical, Structural, Morphological studies were carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Inecrease in band gap, fluorescence quenching and red shift of fluorescence peak position was observed with increasing dopant (Fe) concentration in CdSe. Absorption spectra of undoped CdSe, Fe doped CdSe QDs exhibits a blue shift as compared to the bulk CdSe which indicates clearly the quantum confinement effect. The nonlinear optical parameters viz. nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of quantum dots have been estimated using second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. The study predicts that CdSe:Fe quantum dots exhibits strong non linearity as compared to core CdSe nanoparticles.



Study of Glass and Bakelite properties as electrodes in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs)
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter detector (ICAL) for the study of atmospheric neutrinos. ICAL detector will be a stack of 151 layers of magnetized iron plates interleaved with glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements with a total mass of 50 kton. Resistive Plate Chambers are gaseous detectors made up of two parallel electrodes of high bulk resistivity like float glass and bakelite. These detectors are extensively used in several high energy physics experiments since 1980s because of high count rate, excellent time as well as spatial resolutions, simple to fabricate and operate. Due to detector aging issue, it is necessary to characterize electrode material so as to select appropriate electrode material before fabricating the detector. In the present studies, we measured bulk resistivity and surface current of glass as well as bakelite. Bulk resistivity of bakelite is ~ 100 times less than that of glass and surface current of bakelite is higher than that of glass. Also glass does not need any kind of surface treatment to achieve better surface uniformity. Therefore, glass electrodes are preferred over bakelite electrodes in most of the cases. Locally manufactured Asahi glass plate of ~2 mm thickness and bakelite plates  were tested during the studies as reported in this paper before the various stages of detector fabrication.

Role of low salt concentration on electrical conductivity in blend polymeric films
A new blend polymer electrolyte based on polyethyelene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) doped with Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) has been prepared by solution casting technique using Dimethyalformamide (DMF) as solvent. The prepared samples were characterized by FTIR, FESEM and ac impedance spectroscopic measurements. The complex formation between blend polymer (0.5g PEO: 0.5g PAN) and LiPF6 has been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From AC impedance spectroscopic analysis there is enhancement of two order on addition of salt than pure PEO-PAN. The effect of low salt concentration on the conductivity and surface morphology of the blend polymer electrolyte has been discussed.

Abstracts - Role of Analytical Sciences in Sustainable Development

Abstracts of Role of Analytical Sciences in Sustainable Development

Organized by: Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India

in collaboration withIndian society of Analytical Scientists- Delhi Chapter (ISAS-DC) and Petrotech Society

Dates: 4-5 March 2016.



A comparative study of inhibitive effects of some Schiff’s Bases on Mild Steel in Acid media
Mass Loss, Thermometric & Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) techniques have been employed to study the corrosion inhibitory effects of some newly synthesized Schiff’s Bases viz. N-(furfurilidine)-4-methoxy aniline (SB1), N-( furfurilidine)-4-methylaniline (SB2), N-(Salicylidine)-4-Methoxyaniline(SB3) , N-(Cinnamalidine)-4-methoxy aniline(SB4) and N-( Cinnamalidine)-2-methylaniline (SB5) for mild steel in HCl & H2SO4 solutions. Results of inhibition efficiencies from all the three techniques show that Schiff’s Bases are good inhibitors in both the solutions. Inhibition efficiencies increase with the increase in the concentrations of acids as well as those of inhibitors. Maximum efficiency for H2SO4 was found 97.01 % whereas for HCl it was found 97.93 % . It was also found that all the three techniques show good agreement with each other.

Investigation of extracts of Plant Cordia Dichotoma as potential corrosion inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acid media
The alcoholic extracts of fruit, leaves and stem of plant Cordia Dichotoma were studied for their corrosion inhibition efficiency for mild steel in acid media. The studies showed that the fruit extract of this plant is more potent corrosion inhibitor than the leaves and stem extratcs of Cordia dichotoma.The corrosion inhibition of mild steel  using extracts of cordia dichotoma in different acid media was investigated by mass loss method. The experiments were carried out at 299 ± 0.2 K in presence of different concentrations of  fruit, leaves and stem extracts of Cordia dichotoma. The results reveal that the alcoholic extracts of Cordia dichotoma are better corrosion inhibitor than that of toxic chemicals.

Inhibitive action of Leptadenia pyrotechnica extract on the corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 solution
Inhibitive action on corrosion of mild steel in acidic media has been studied using Mass Loss Technique and Thermometric Method. Corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solution can be effectively inhibited by addition of extract of Leptadenia pyrotechnica as green corrosion inhibitor. The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency was found upto 87.04% in 1.0N H2SO4 with 0.8% extract. It is concluded that Leptadenia pyrotechnica is an effective corrosion inhibitor and can safely be used as green corrosion inhibitor without any toxic effect.

Adsorption of toxic metal ions from laboratory effluents by agricultural waste
The chemistry laboratory effluents usually contains highly toxic organic and inorganic pollutants including metal ions .These hazardous chemical wastes pose serious health problems to living beings. The persistency of toxic metals in environment and their ill health effects are well known. Out of the possible methods to check toxic metal ion pollution, the bio-remediation is of great importance as conventional methods used to remove these toxic metal ions are quite expensive and have certain limitations in terms of efficiency and disposal of secondary waste produced in the process. Adsorption of these metal ions by agricultural waste materials has advantage because of the low cost and high efficiency. Moreover these are environment friendly and there is a possibility of metal ion recovery also. These cellulosic agricultural wastes contain various functional groups like carbonyl, alcohol, acetamido, sulfhydryl etc. which can form chelateswith metal ions and help sequestering of these toxic metals. In the present study rice husk and orange peel have been used for the removal of metal ions from laboratory effluents. Our studies have indicated that the adsorption of metal ions by these bio-sorbents is efficient for the bio-remediation of the laboratory wastewater. Some of these are highly efficient and remove nearly 85% of toxic metal ions. Kinetics of adsorption of metal ions on these materials is also studied. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models have been studied for mono component adsorption of metal ion by these bio-sorbents. Free energy change for sorption is also calculated. Various physical parameters of laboratory effluent water were compared before and after the adsorption.

Environmentally benign Iodometric method for estimation of copper
Copper is one of the most important metals as it is used in alloys as well as electric and electronic industry.  The composition of alloy strongly affects its properties. Instrumental methods are preferred for quickly finding composition of alloys. However, the main limitations in these methods are high cost of instruments and need for skilled supervision for maintenance & operations. To overcome limitations of instrumental analysis, to reduce the sample size and to reduce waste, a novel eco-friendly micro-titration method based on counting of number of drops is reported. Students learn chemical quantitative analysis and practice iodometry in their lab courses for estimation of copper. The green method was used along with conventional iodometry for training of first year UG students. The data of estimated copper using the two methods were collected and analyzed. Statistical comparison of the results of these methods shows fairly good agreement and indicates no significant difference in precision and accuracy.  The novel method is more environmentally benign as it helps in energy savings, a drastic reduction of reagent consumption, and less waste generation.

Interaction of CdSe Quantum Dots with some aliphatic and aromatic diamines

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystal show that CdSe quantum dots have set the latest trends in the era of reduced dimensionality. The interactions of these CdSe quantum dots with organic molecules have led to new materials showing fascinating physical properties of potential technological importance. It is very to explore the interactions of quantum dots with various molecules for which they can be used as effective sensors with wide range of applications. In order to develop sensors for the detection of amines, several investigations have already been carried out. Earlier studies have already revealed that the direct interaction between the CdSe surface and amine functional groups passivates the surface and blocks the trapping of electrons at the defect sites. The latest research in the field of applications of quantum dots suffers huge drawbacks because of inadequate results available for the systematic study of structural and electronic properties of quantum dots as a sensor.This work provides an overview of efforts made to interactCdSe quantum dots with various aliphatic (Ethylene diamine, Hexamethylenediamine) and aromatic diamines (Orthophenylenediamine, MetaphenylenediamineandParaphenylenediamine). There are tremendous structural transformations in the structures of the molecular systems. Significant changes in the electronic properties were also marked after interactions between the diamines and CdSe quantum dots.



Theoretical Modeling of Replication Association Protein of Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus and its docking with N-Acetyl D-Glucosamine
The Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), also known as the Begomovirus, belongs to the family Geminiviridae and is transmitted through the whitefly. One of the forms of it is Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) which adversely affects the yields of tomatoes, guavas, green chillies, potatoes, etc. ICMV has been modelled theoretically in the present work with the help of tools of homology modelling. The latter is concerned with insilico approaches to build, predict and analyse the 3-D structure of proteins (for which the crystal structure is unavailable). The closest homologue of Association Protein of Tomato was 1L2M_A, with the highest sequence identity. Both consensus and chimera models were made and studied. The best one was then used for the docking studies. Thereafter, the putative binding sites to be attacked by various inhibitors were located and then docked with N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG). NAG was optimized using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods and its properties are studies. The docking scores of NAG on the active sites of Replication Association Protein of Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus were checked and it was found that NAG proves to be an effective inhibitor for ICMV. This study will now be tried in the wet lab to check the efficiency of our theoretical findings.

Conservation of some endangered and economically important medicinal plants of India – A review
India has a great wealth of medicinal plant biodiversity which is used by various tribal’s and local people to cure different ailments. Unchecked commercialization, habitat loss and habitat degradation have placed many medicinal plant species at a risk of extinction. Therefore there is an immense need for their conservation. There are two basic methods of biodiversity conservation: in situ (on site) and ex situ (off site), both are complementary to each other. In situ methods allow conservation to occur at gradual rate with natural evolutionary processes while ex situ conservation involves conservation outside the native habitat. Ex situ conservation via tissue culture technology helps in achieving the objective at a faster rate. The present paper discusses the various in vitro protocols developed for some of the selected endangered and economically important medicinal plants of India such as Tinospora cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Stevia rebaudiana and Tylophora indica.

Europium doped nanophosphors and applications in in vitro optical bioimaging
We report the synthesis of ‘rare-earth’ doped calcium phosphate-based ‘nanophosphors’ in a methanolic medium, with surface modified with trisilanol. In order to enhance the luminescence intensity of these nanophosphors, 1, 10-phenanthroline was used as a co-dopant. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for various physical properties. In vitro analyses showed that the particles were taken up by cells, without any sign of cytotoxicity. Using fluorescence microscopy and cell uptake studies, we have demonstrated the enhanced luminescence intensity of nanophosphors when 1, 10- phenanthroline was used. These results highlight the potential for nanophosphors to be used in safe and efficient optical bioimaging.

Removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution using dead biomass of Bacillus Subtilis
The dead biomass of Bacillus subtilis has been used for the removal of Cu (II) from an aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, adsorbate concentration, pH of the medium and temperature were examined. Optimum removal at 200C was found to be 98.6 % at pH 6.5, with an initial Cu (II) concentration of 100 mgL-1. Dynamics of the sorption process and mass transfer of Cu (II) to Bacillus subtilis were investigated and the values of rate constant of adsorption, rate constant of intraparticle diffusion and the mass transfer coefficients were calculated. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The adsorption data fitted the Langmuir isotherm. A generalized empirical model was proposed for the kinetics at different initial concentrations. The data were subjected to multiple regression analysis and a model was developed to predict the removal of Cu (II) from an aqueous solution.

An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in the Perforated Rectangular Fin

The main objective of this study is to understand the effect of number of perforations on convective heat transfer experimentally investigated. Perforations in the fins are one way that used to improve its effectiveness. In this study, the steady state heat transfer from the solid fin and perforated fin arrays are measured. The  temperature  drop  along  the  perforated  fin  length  is  consistently  higher  than that  for  the  equivalent  non – perforated  fin. The inlet temperature of the cylinder core was in the rage of 353oC-953oC for voltage range 100 V to 220 V. The heat transfer depends on the porosity of the fin. Heat dissipation rate is increased in the range of 20% to 70% with increase in the number of perforations (24 to 60) up to certain level. If further increase in perforation numbers this leads to reduction of the heat dissipation from the fin.



Microwave sintering time optimization to boost structural and electrical properties in BaTiO3 ceramics

BaTiO3 ceramics with fine grain distribution were successfully fabricated by solid state reaction using microwave processing. The role of microwave sintering time for producing a controlled microstructure with optimized dielectric and ferroelectric properties in BaTiO3 ceramics is discussed. X-ray diffraction data were refined with Fullprof program using Rietveld method, which showed perovskite-type tetragonal structure with space group P4mm for all prepared samples. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the grain size found to increase with increasing microwave sintering time. Dielectric constant (εr) measured in frequency range 0.1 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures showed depressive behaviour in the higher frequency region which decreases with increasing frequency. The BaTiO3 sample sintered at 1200 °C for 60 minutes exhibited best properties as high dielectric constant (εr≈1.5x104) with lowest degree of diffuseness (γ≈1.0741). The ferroelectric properties were investigated using P-E hysteresis loop. The remnant polarization (Pr) increased while the coercive field (Ec) decreased with increasing microwave sintering time applying these are micro structural dependent. Optimum sintering time has been found resulting in high values of relative permittivity and remnant polarization. 



Dielectric Properties and equivalent circuit Analysis of molybdenum doped lead lithium borate glasses

The dielectric properties and equivalent circuit analysis of glasses with composition xPbO·(30-x)Li2O·70B2O(x = 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12  and 15 mol% with code PLBM1-7 respectively) containing 2 mol% of MoO3 prepared by melt-quench technique are discussed. The dielectric properties have been studied using impedance spectroscopy. The frequency dependent conductivity investigations for prepared compositions have been carried out using impedance spectroscopy over a frequency range of 1 KHz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range of 300K-523K. The complex impedance data have been analyzed by using both the conductivity and the electric modulus formalisms. Standard dielectric behavior is observed in prepared samples. The ac conductivity obeys Jonscher’s power law. The study of the equivalent circuit analysis up to a temperature of 473K shows a significant change in the equivalent circuit with change in temperature and composition.



Phytoremediation of heavy metals and its mechanism: A brief review

In this study a review has been carried out for the uptake of toxic pollutants by various plants from water and soil. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the cleaning of soil and water and cheap in comparison to other technologies. The mechanism of the uptake of toxic pollutants is discussed.



Investigation on Effect of 20% Shrinkage and 20% Shrinkage-Offset Canard Configurations on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Onera M6 wing using Computational Fluid Dynamics

The main objective of the analysis is to study the detailed aerodynamics & the characteristics of the lift & drag of the aircraft with the canard wing & the co-efficient of pressure & flow separation patterns over the wings at different spans and angles of attacks. Here the Onera-M6 wing is modelled for the transonic flow conditions in 3D with the adiabatic flow conditions. In the first case only the Onera-M6 wing is analyzed to know the performance. In the second case the canard is considered along with the Onera-M6 main wing and the modelling is done with the same set of conditions as 3D- transonic flows. In the present study two canard positions are considered, one under the same axis of the main wing (20% shrinkage), and another above the axis line of the main wing (20% shrinkage-offset). In the first design i.e., canard of 20% shrinkage with same axis, the design is performing well than clean wing & 20% shrinkage-offset canard at the lower angle of attacks. In the second design i.e., canard with 20% shrinkage-offset with the axis of the main wing is analyzed at different angles of attacks, the design is performing better than clean wing & 20% shrinkage with the same axis at higher angles of attacks.



Journal information submitted by: Dr. Bhupender Singh

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