Journal of Integrated Science and Technology

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Published by: Integrated Science Publications

Subjects: InterDisciplinary Science and Technology

The Journal of Integrated Science and Technology (JIST) is official journal of IndianScience.in published by Indian Science Publications division. The journal publishes peer-reviewed articles from research in Science & Technology. The articles published cover different areas of Sciences and Technology viz., Chemical Sciences, Physics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Biochemistry & Bioinformatics, Botany & Environmental Sciences, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Entomology & Toxicological Sciences, Fisheries, Food Science & Nutrition, Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, Marine Biology, Material Sciences, BioEngineering, BioEthics, BioMedical Engineering and many more branches in the field of Science and Technology. Journal of Contemporary Science and Technology covers Research Articles, Reviews, Science & Technology Education, Popular Articles and Conference proceedings. Articles with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary nature are promoted to foster a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of research. Industrial designs and and educational articles are published in special section.

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Development of Energy Efficient Carbon Fiber based Convective Heater

A heating element has been developed that uses processed fibrous carbon materials to serve as a conducting base, and a suitable binder material to increase its overall strength and performance characteristics. This has been further fabricated in the form of a wall heater. The device has been designed to work on natural convection currents without any forced air blast using fans and motors. The flexibility of the material enables its use in different shapes as room heaters, decorative wall heaters, as a heating element in electric iron, hot plates, heating pads etc. Various advantageous characteristics of the carbon fiber based heating element (over the conventional nichrome wire and other carbon based heating element) that contributes in the efficient working of the heater have been discussed, the most important being its low power consumption. The heater consumes less than 200 watt of power as compared to 1-2 kW ingested by the commercial heaters.



Status of biofuel production from microalgae in India

The economy of any country runs on energy. Due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment restrict the use of fossil fuels. Biodiesel is required for environmental and economic sustainability of any country. Biodiesel produced from Ist generation, second generation, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel from microalgae appears to be a viable alternative to replace petroleum based fuel due to various advantages. This present paper investigate the prospectus of microalgal biodiesel in India.



Ferrite materials: A chronological review
Ferrite is very important technological material having both electrical and magnetic properties. This paper represent some of the important developments in the study of ferrite. A review of ferrite study from 1909 to till date is presented here regarding science and technology of ferrite. The paper highlights the work of some great scientists like S.Hilpert, J.L. Snoek, Neel, Anderson, Goldman, Takashi Takei etc. The role of international conference on ferrites (ICF) is also given in this paper. Various illustrations given in this paper explains the history and applications of the ferrites. It gives an over view of ferrite study from bulk to nano scale preparations of ferrites. It is the need of the present day to prepare samples of ferrite with one composition using many available methods of preparation and compare the results of such studies. This will give useful data for the user and designer interested in ferrites for various application.

Effect of oxidant concentration on the co-polymerization of m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and aniline co-polymer: synthesis and characterization

The effect of the concentrations of the oxidizing agent (sodium persulphate) on the properties of poly (m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid -co- aniline) p(m-ABSA-co-Ani) co-polymer has been investigated. The prepared samples were confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and further, characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and tested for temperature dependent stability by thermogravimetric analyses. The room-temperature conductivity measurements have been performed on all the p(m-ABSA-co Ani) co-polymers samples and found a maximum value of conductivity of ~ 6.5 × 10-2 S/cm at 168 mM concentration of oxidizing agent. The EPR studies have been shown that the variation of line width of EPR signals withoxidizing agent concentration and found a close relation with electrical conductivity. The prepared co-polymer samples are thermally stable up to 600 oC detected by TGA analysis. The synthesized co-polymer materials show around 75% solubility in chloroform, ~65 % in Dimethyl sulfoxide, ~­58 % in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and weakly soluble in aqueous medium.



Impact of biodiesel on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable. Looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The performance of diesel engine under the engine loading conditions showed that maximum output power at full load condition is nearly same for B10 and diesel fuel. For combustion characteristics, slightly shorter ignition delay and lower peak heat release rates were observed for biodiesel while there is slight reduction in SO2 and HC emission with increase in NOX emission when biodiesel and its blends are used. The present paper covers combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The performance of diesel engines using biodiesel and its blends with petro-diesel in terms of brake power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust emissions is reviewed. The engine problems and their possible remedial measure are also suggested in this paper.



Ecological Health Assessment of Chambal River using Water Quality Parameters

The river is a main source to fulfill the basic needs of drinking water & irrigation. Due to multifarious anthropogenic activities has created havoc to the river health. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the river health to make it suitable for various purposes. In this study, various water quality indices (WQI) used for assessing river health are discussed. The literature reveals that water quality parameters are the most significant tool to assess the river health. In this paper an attempt has been made to assess the river health by using different methods viz. EQI, RPI & OPI. It is found that the RPI method is most effective, less time consuming and cost effective. By using different methods, it is found that the river health of Chambal River comes in average category, gives an indication that river is slightly/moderately polluted



Effect of sewage irrigation on yield of Pea and Pigeon Pea
Irrigation is the important factors which determine the productivity of any crop. In this study, the source of irrigation is sewage effluent and observations were recorded on important food crops like pea & pigeon pea. Results showed at higher concentration of effluent there were reduction in growth and yield as compared to diluted conc. (50%) which showed normal growth or without affecting yield, which might be due to lots of organic matter and essential nutrient in sewage effluents.

Synthesis, electrical and thermal properties of Bi4V2-xZrxO11 (x=0.0 and 0.06) ceramics
Polycrystalline ceramic samples of pure and Zr+4 doped Bi4V2-xZrxO11 (x=0.0 and 0.06) have been synthesized by standard solid state reaction method using high purity oxides. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss and hence ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature have been measured. The dielectric studies indicate that the material is highly lossy and hence its ac conductivity increases with the increase of temperature. The dc conductivity of material has been measured as a function of temperature from room temperature to 653 K and its activation energy was calculated using the relation σ = σo exp (-Ea/kT). The Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) has been used to investigate the effect of substitution on the phase transition of the compounds.

Analysis of high pressure properties of metals using equations of state

 We have analysed the study of high pressure properties of metals using various equations of state. The results have been obtained for pressure P, isothermal bulk modulus K, and its derivatives K for four metals viz. Zinc (Zn), Lanthanum (La), Vanadium (V) and Niobium (Nb) at different values of compression V/V0 (0.5 to 1.0). The calculations have been performed using Modified Rydberg EOS (equation of state), Hama Suito EOS, Stacey Reciprocal K-primed EOS, Kushwah logarithmic EOS and Kushwah Exponential EOS. The results for various parameters show the systematic variations with the increase in pressure and compare well with the Stacey EOS.



Power line Filter Design using equivalent circuit of passive lumped components

A methodology to design power line filter, using the conventional technique of composite low pass filter has been presented. It is based on a model where common mode and differential mode interference is separately considered into the filter design. In this paper, the filter design process is carried out, by considering the effect of non-ideal behavior of passive lumped components. A proposed model of the power line filter design, based on the parasitic effect of the passive lumped elements is presented. The filter’s circuits were first simulated using Advanced design software (ADS) based on S-parameter to verify the basic filter response. The simulation result is compared with the cases, where the parasitic effects of passive lumped elements are not taken into account.



Chemo-enzymatic conversion of biomass into bio-ethanol

The energy crisis and environmental pollution from use of fossil fuels have become more serious globally which insisted us to explore the use of bio-fuels as cheaper and cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels. The higher production costs of alcohol, however, are an obstacle to the production of this energy source. Selection of biomass with higher yields and higher sugar content and at lower cost is, therefore, essential to cut down costs of ethanol production. In the present research we have taken fruit peels (orange and banana) as a substrate for the production of ethanol by some chemo-biological methods. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was taken for the fermentation and then the distillation we could recover 10-11% ethanol concentration. It has various advantages over the traditional fuel. It is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution if spilt. Bio-ethanol has higher octane number, broader flammability limit, higher flame speed and higher heat of vaporization than gasoline. It is much cleaner and releases no toxic gases.



A Concise Review on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) Inhibitors
Cyclin dependent kinases 5 (CDK5) carry out many critical roles in the process of cell cycling and play an important role in many physiological functions, including development of central nervous system and their inhibitors have been extensively researched as therapeutic agents in the diagnosis of cancer. CDK5 belongs to Serine/Threonine Cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) family. CDK5/ p25 complex has emerged as one of the potent principle therapeutic target for various diseases like acute and chronic neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer’s disease. Excessive upregulation of CDK5 leads to several types of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Niemann pick type C disease and Ischemia. To inhibit the excessive activity of cdk5, several cdk5 inhibitors have been synthesized and discovered naturally by various research groups globally here in this review we are accounting some of them together to show their efficacy.

Effects of nuclear breakup on 6Li+64Zn fusion reaction around barrier energies

We have studied the effect of breakup of weakly bound projectile on fusion reactions involving intermediate mass target within the framework of dynamic polarization potential approach. The sub barrier enhancement and the above barrier suppression have been found which significantly improves the matching between the fusion excitation function data and calculations for 6Li+64Zn system.



Study of Antioxidant Potential of Solanum tuberosum peel extracts

The hydroxyl and nitric oxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content of  Solanum tuberosum peels extracts in ethyl acetate and methanol were investigated in vitro. Total Polyphenolic Contents were determined in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalent. Reducing power Assay was also determined by standard method. In the present study it has been demonstrated that, ethyl acetate extract contains higher amount of Polyphenolic Contents as compared to methanolic extract as well as DPPH Radical Scavenging is concentration dependent and Solanum tuberosum peel extract in ethyl acetate extract shows more DPPH Radical Scavenging than methanol extract. To conclude, Solanum tuberosum peels extracts showed a good antioxidant activity and might be an alternate to synthetic antioxidants available in the market.



Hydroxyethylamine Based Small Molecules as Inhibitors of BACE-1

β-Secretase or BACE-1 is a popular target for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) and responsible for the formation of amyloid-β peptide. In recent years BACE-1 has emerged as one of the best characterized targets for Alzheimer therapy. The inhibition of BACE-1 activity is a crucial step for the treatment of AD. This mini-review summarizes some popular BACE-1 inhibitors possessing hydroxyethylamine and peptide scaffolds.



Steady State availability analysis of a Physical System: Sole lasting system of Shoe Industry
This paper deals with the performance analysis of sole lasting system of a shoe industry using Markovian approach. The plant is divided into many sections like shoe upper manufacturing system, sole lasting system and sole pasting system. In the present work sole lasting system has been taken for performance analysis. The system consists of six subsystems namely, Toe Humidifier Machine, Toe Lasting Machine, Heel Humidifier Machine, Heel Lasting Machine, Heating Chamber Machine and Rubbing & Buffing machine. Failure and repair rates of these subsystems are assumed to be constant and exponentially distributed. A mathematical model pertaining to the real environment of shoe industry has been developed using Markov birth-death process.  The differential equations have been derived on the basis of probabilistic approach using transition diagram. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to derive out the steady state availability expression of the system i.e. system’s performance criterion. The results give system availability for different combinations of failures and repair rates for various subsystems.

Elemental analysis of one rupee Indian coins by using EDXRF technique

Elemental analysis of some Indian coins of one rupee has been carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique which is non destructive, rapid and multi elemental in nature. The present investigation has been made for coins of different years for their elemental compositions with EDX-720 spectrometer equipped with Si(Li) detector having energy resolution 165 eV at 5.9 keV Mn K X-rays. This study observed the presence of Cu, Ni, Fe and Cr as the major elements.



Structural analysis and dielectric characterization of Aurivillius type CaSrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics

This work describes synthesis of powdered materials belonging to the Aurivillius oxide family (Bi2O2)2+(An-1BnO3n+1)2- for n = 2 and provides an approach for understanding the structural evolution with composition. The effect of strontium doping on the lattice response and dielectric properties of Ca1-xSrxBi2Nb2O9 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0) ferroelectric ceramics is studied. The XRD studies revealed single phase formation of orthorhombic structure. The average crystallite size was obtained in the range 22-41 nm. The dielectric properties, viz. dielectric constant, loss tangent and ac electrical conductivity of the samples were studied by using impedance spectroscopy. A strong low frequency dielectric dispersion was found to exist in these samples. Its occurrence was ascribed to the presence of ionized space charge carriers such as oxygen vacancies. The relationship among doping, crystal structure, and dielectric properties were also discussed. Measurements of the dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature reveal signs of single phase transition. The thermal activation energy for the grain electric conductivity was lower in the high temperature region (Ea(ht) = 0.08 eV) and higher in the low temperature region (Ea(lt) = 0.21 eV).



Structural Investigations of Lithium Vanadoxide Bismo-Borate Glasses

The lithium vanadoxide bismuth borate glass system with composition (30-x)Li2O · xV2O5 · 50B2O3 · 20Bi2O3 (x=5, 10, 15)has been prepared with the traditional melt-quenching technique. The density measurements were performed using Archimedes Principal and using density data molar volume was calculated. To determine the oxygen covalency theoretical optical basicity was calculated. To get an idea about the structure FTIR spectroscopy was carried out in the mid-IR region. The spectra revealed absence of boroxol ring and presence of absorption bands corresponding to the combined contributions of tri and tetra borate stretching vibrations. The increasing basicity reveals decrease in the covalence nature of oxygen as we replace the Li2O content with V2O5. The decrease in molar volume may be due to the increase in compactness of the network structure.



First Principles Study of Fe based Full Heusler Alloy
The electronic structure of Fe-based quaternary Heusler compounds Fe2CoZ (Z=Ga, Ge) is calculated by first-principles density functional theory. Structural optimization is performed for two possible structures: Hg2CuTi-type and Cu2MnAl-type structures of Fe2CoZ. We found that Hg2CuTi-type structure is energetically more favorable than Cu2MnAl-type structure. The calculated equilibrium lattice constant is 5.812Å and 5.75Å respectively for Ga and Ge based alloy. The calculations reveal that Fe2CoGa material exhibit 100% spin-polarization whereas Fe2CoGe has 62% spin-polarization. The value of magnetic moment for Fe2CoGa and Fe2CoGe is 5.72mB, 4.96mB respectively

Journal information submitted by: Dr. Bhupender Singh

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